Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 65 m (Ref. 9710), usually 1 - 35 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 33°N - 35°S, 100°W - 33°W (Ref. 55187)
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA to southern Brazil, including the northern Gulf of Mexico and the Antilles.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 152 - 168 cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); 295.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 69.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
A large, gray shark with an interdorsal ridge and short blunt snout. 1st dorsal fin small with short rear tip (Ref. 26938).
Found on continental and insular shelves, often near drop-offs on the outer edges of reefs. May rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Usually found in reefs, at less than 30 m deep (Ref 26938). Feed on bony fishes, including bigeyes (Priacanthidae). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth below 73 cm. A dangerous species implicated in an abortive attack on divers in the Caribbean. Meat is prepared dried salted for human consumption, hides for leather, liver for oil, carcasses for fish meal.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.3 - 28, mean 27.2 °C (based on 396 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00219 - 0.01045), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 5.48 [0.77, 21.61] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.525 [0.142, 1.532] mg/100g ; Protein = 23 [20, 25] % ; Omega3 = 0.162 [0.066, 0.393] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.3 [4.7, 52.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.1 [11.0, 101.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.356 [0.162, 0.732] mg/100g (wet weight);