Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 64 - 226 m (Ref. 89467), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Gulf of Oman, East Africa, southern Japan, Hawaii, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Australia, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Southeast Atlantic: southeast coast of South Africa (Ref. 3197). Also reported from the northern Red Sea (Refs. 13277, 58021).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89467); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Adults are found on the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 30573). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 3287). Cultured and released for fishery in Japan.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.4 - 24.4, mean 20.6 °C (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.01077 - 0.02679), b=2.94 (2.81 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.1 [20.1, 67.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.22 [0.58, 2.37] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [18.1, 22.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.178 [0.109, 0.297] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.4 [5.7, 22.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 55 [6, 393] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.759 [0.413, 1.554] mg/100g (wet weight);