Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Canthigasterinae
Etymology: Canthigaster: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, gaster = stomach (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 36 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Line and Tuamoto Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Tonga; strays to the Hawaiian Islands. Population from the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Queensland, and Belau differs in coloration (formerly Canthigaster papua); replaced by Canthigaster margaritata in the Red Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
Inhabit sheltered rocky reefs (Ref. 48637). Also live in intertidal reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs. Occur over open barren areas, also among corals and under ledges (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Often found in pairs, sometimes in small groups. Feed mainly on filamentous red and green algae and coralline red algae but also on corals, tunicates, mollusks, echinoderms, polychaetes, crustaceans and bryozoans. Common (Ref. 9710). Monogamous (Ref. 52884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Displays facultative monogamy where males are constrained to mate with a single female due to resource limitation (Ref. 52884).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.1 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 454 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02512 (0.01288 - 0.04899), b=2.93 (2.75 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.36 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .