Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Ophichthidae
(Snake eels) > Ophichthinae
Etymology: Caecula: Latin, caecus = blind; caeculus (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Indian Ocean: southern India and probably most other parts of the Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7245); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7245)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 126 - 130. Body elongate, more or less cylindrical, slightly compressed, with a hard tail; sharply conical head; anterior nostril a downwardly facing tube near tip of snout, posterior nostril an inconspicuous slit in upper lip, guarded by a papilla; eyes very small, inconspicuous; mouth large, extending well behind eye; small, sharp, more or less uniserial teeth; gill opening a longitudinal slit beneath throat with an extra fold of skin alongside; dorsal fin origin over gill-opening; very poorly developed dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 4832).
Inhabits estuaries and inshore areas of turbid waters. Marketed fresh and used mainly for bait.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Castle, P.H.J., 1984. Ophichthidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Volume 3. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 7245)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00126 (0.00052 - 0.00302), b=2.91 (2.70 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .