Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Indo-West Pacific (Indo-Malay Archipelago): western Thailand to Indonesia (Java and Borneo).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following characters: a very small whipray, oval disc, pointed snout, adults with broad almost rectangular denticle band, no enlarged mid-shoulder denticles, tail short (with bulbous tip in adult females) with median row of enlarged spearshaped thorns, skin folds on tail absent, and dorsal surface plain coloured; disc slightly longer than wide, length ca. 1–1.1 times DW, pectoral-fin apex is broadly rounded; snout rather long, broad, with apical lobe narrowly rounded, anterior margins moderately concave; eyes small, protruding slightly, orbit length and spiracle ca. 2.9–3.1 in snout length, the interorbital space rather broad, 1.2–2.1 times orbit length; mouth is moderately arched, 2-3 well-developed oral papillae (well separated),
lower jaw arched with central concavity; nasal curtain is skirtshaped, broad, posterior margin finely fringed; mid-shoulder denticle is weak, the denticle band expanded over abdomen in
adults, converging forward of orbits and tail, and constricted beside spiracles, skin is smooth outside denticle band; thorns in median row on tail 4-6 and enlarged with convex crowns; tail
short to moderately elongate, its length 1–1.7 times DW, depressed, stout at base but filamentous beyond caudal sting in young and adult males while bulbous with short filamentous tip in large females, with 1 or 2 caudal stings (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00606 - 0.04338), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).