Gender agreement to be confirmed, niver vs nigra.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Subtropical
Southwest Pacific: eastern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 44 - 52. Caudal fin rounded; pectorals small (Ref. 33839). Eyed side uniformly blackish or light brown with large patches of dark brown cirri, pectoral fin nearly black, dorsal, anal and caudal fins with narrow whitish margin; blind side creamy to white with brownish pigment on unpaired fins, pectorals whitish, lower portion blackish in some large specimens (Ref. 33839).
Occurs in muddy bottoms of coastal rivers, estuaries and shallow inshore waters (Ref. 33839). Flesh is of excellent quality (Ref. 33839).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gomon, M.F., C.J.M. Glover and R.H. Kuiter (eds.), 1994. The fishes of Australia's south coast. State Print, Adelaide. 992 p. (Ref. 33839)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17 - 24.9, mean 19.6 °C (based on 92 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00473 - 0.02021), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).