Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 140 m (Ref. 6871). Tropical; 11°S - 36°S, 112°E - 143°E (Ref. 54288)
Southwest Pacific: confined to Australia, southern Queensland and New South Wales. Records from Western Australia and northern Territory need confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length :66 cm TL (female)
Usually found close inshore in tide pools (barely deep enough to keep it covered) and at the surf line, but sometimes deeper (Ref. 247). Prefers rocky shoreline areas and coral reefs (Ref. 247, 43278). Feeds on small reef invertebrates (Ref. 247), including crabs, shrimps, cuttlefish, squid and sea anemones (Ref. 43278), and small fishes (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 43278, 50449). Thrives in an aquaria and capable of living out of water for a long time (Ref. 247).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). With 7 or 8 young in a litter (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.3 - 26.1, mean 24.2 °C (based on 140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 19.4 [3.4, 62.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.385 [0.111, 1.064] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.0, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.0968 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [8.8, 97.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 44.3 [16.4, 109.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.801 [0.384, 2.037] mg/100g (wet weight);