Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 90 m (Ref. 5217), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 41°N - 33°S, 85°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: New York, USA and northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. There are no records from any Antillean location (Ref. 51183).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs in bays, lagoons, and shallow coastal waters. Found on soft bottoms of continental shelf to a depth of about 90 m, more common between 10-50 m (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes and mollusks (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.2 - 28, mean 25.4 °C (based on 360 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00426 - 0.02347), b=3.07 (2.89 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).