Teleostei (teleosts) > Anabantiformes
(Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Malay/Javanese origin. Bleeker (1850, 1858) indicates Ikan Wadder Bettah as the local name of Betta trifasciata Bleeker, 1849 (now Betta picta, Valenciennes, 1846) in the Ambarawa Javanese dialect. Ikan Wader is a common Javanese name for smaller freshwater fishes, especially cyprinids (already used in Old Javanese). See Blust, R. & Trussel, S. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Web Edition (https://www.trussel2.com/acd/)..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Asia: restricted to northeastern Borneo in Sabah and East Kalimantan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56613)
(total): 0 - 1;
soft rays: 28 - 30;
Vertebrae: 33 - 34. Differs from other members of the Betta unimaculata species group by the following combination of characters: distinct black spot near caudal peduncle; body wormish; opercle blue; uniform caudal fin coloration; vertebrae 33-34 (mode 33); anal-fin rays 30-31 (mode 30); dorsal-fin rays 8; pectoral fin rays 12-13 (mode 13); subdorsal scales 5-5 1/2 (mode 5 1/2); lateral scales 32-34 (mode 33); predorsal scales 24; predorsal length 68.8-71.9% SL; head length 31.4-33.3% SL; length of anal-fin base 52.2-54.5% SL; length of dorsal-fin base 10.5-11.3% SL; lower jaw length 27.3-33.1% HL (Ref. 56613).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Inhabit more slow flowing areas of the headwater habitats (Ref. 34011). Found usually in ravines and isolated elevated pools. An adult and several juveniles are usually encountered in submerged leaf litter. Adults may take cover under floating leaves and are excellent jumpers, which may explain their presence in isolated elevated pools (Ref. 56613). Feed mainly on terrestrial insects and occasionally on aquatic invertebrates (Ref. 56613).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tan, H.H. and P.K.L. Ng, 2005. The fighting fishes (Teleostei: Osphronemidae: Genus Betta) of Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Raffles Bull. Zool. Supplement (13):43-99. (Ref. 56613)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00367 - 0.02602), b=2.97 (2.74 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).