Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Ipnopidae
(Deep-sea tripod fishes) > Ipnopinae
Etymology: Bathypterois: Greek, bathys = deep + Greek, pterois = with wings (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 878 - 4720 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 45°N - 27°S, 98°W - 52°E
Tropical to warm temperate Atlantic, Indian and Western Central Pacific oceans. Western Atlantic: eastern seaboard of the U.S. from about 40°N to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean..
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37039); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3590)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Elongate pelvic and caudal fin rays held body above the sediment. These rays appeared flexible when the fishes swam and stiff when they were perched on the bottom (Ref. 7460).
Benthic (Ref. 58302). Found on lower slope, continental rise and oceanic ridges. Solitary. Perches on substrate with the aid of specialized fin rays (tripod), facing the current. Feeds on nektonic copepods and other small planktonic crustaceans. Synchronously hermaphroditic (Ref. 6688).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merrett, N.R., 1990. Chlorophthalmidae. p. 351-360. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 4.6, mean 3.8 °C (based on 979 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00192 - 0.01247), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .