Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range ? - 1080 m (Ref. 2908). Deep-water; 48°N - 56°S, 32°E - 66°W
Western Indian Ocean: Saudi Arabia (Ref. 2908). Eastern Pacific: USA (Ref. 5515) and Chile (Ref. 9068). Also including the Gulf of California (Ref. 35724).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34613)
Mesopelagic, but also probably associated with the bottom (Ref. 35724). Oviparous, with mesopelagic larvae, probably found in deeper waters (Ref. 35724).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Fowler, H.W., 1956. Fishes of the Red Sea and southern Arabia. Branchiostomida to Polynemida. The Weizmann Science Press of Israel, Jerusalem. 240 p. (Ref. 2908)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00164 - 0.00733), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100).