Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 58 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 36°N - 48°S, 24°E - 132°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa eastward through Indonesia to Tuamotus, northward to southern Japan, southward to Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Relatively uncommon in patch reefs and coral slopes near sandy areas of clear lagoon and seaward reefs. Juveniles occur in sandy and weedy inner reefs, adults on clear lagoons and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles inshore, usually on muddy substrates and often estuarine. Adults on deep slopes and range to outer reefs, sometimes swimming high above the substrate or just below the surface. Pelagic larvae may disperse over great distance and juveniles occur in subtropical zone (Ref. 48637). Enter estuaries (Ref. 4833). Considered as the giant among puffers reaching a total length well in excess of a meter.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 559)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.4 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04898 (0.02995 - 0.08010), b=2.87 (2.73 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.5 [9.9, 64.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.536 [0.282, 1.138] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [15.5, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.208 [0.090, 0.474] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.8 [18.0, 109.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.1 [10.4, 176.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.986 [0.597, 1.670] mg/100g (wet weight);