Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 48637). Tropical; 30°N - 31°S, 99°E - 175°W
Western Pacific: Borneo, Philippines, and northwest Australia to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New South Wales, Australia and Tonga.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Inhabits muddy substrates, usually shallow coastal slopes to about 20 meters depth and in shallow estuaries (Ref. 48637). Occurs in estuaries, sheltered reef flats, and lagoons to a depth of more than 17 m. Common in seagrass beds and sandy areas; juveniles found among mangroves (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2174 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01523 - 0.04541), b=2.85 (2.71 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46.9 [19.5, 137.8] mg/100g; Iron = 0.618 [0.306, 1.394] mg/100g; Protein = 18.8 [16.7, 21.0] %; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.064, 0.231] g/100g; Selenium = 27.4 [13.0, 60.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 50.6 [13.4, 195.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.17 [0.76, 1.76] mg/100g (wet weight);