Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 26999), usually 40 - 200 m (Ref. 36731). Subtropical; 58°N - 29°S, 19°W - 22°E
Eastern Atlantic: Scotland to Namibia (Ref. 27121), including the western Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
soft rays: 74 - 82. Eyes separated by a bony ridge, the lower eye a little in advance of the upper. In males, the second to sixth and in females, the second to fifth dorsal fin rays thickened and prolonged. Males with distinct black spot on posterior part of pelvic fins; in females, this spot present but greyish and often indistinct.
Found on sand, mud, shell and corals (Ref. 27121). Caught with bottom and pelagic trawls (Ref. 2683).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Aldebert, Y., M. Desoutter and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Bothidae. p. 1027-1036. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5979)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9.8 - 19.2, mean 11.7 °C (based on 340 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00401 - 0.00906), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95.5 [46.4, 217.0] mg/100g; Iron = 1.01 [0.47, 1.79] mg/100g; Protein = 18.5 [17.0, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.327 [0.143, 0.642] g/100g; Selenium = 28.9 [15.2, 60.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 20 [6, 62] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.785 [0.542, 1.118] mg/100g (wet weight);