Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 132 m (Ref. 57178), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Japan and Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441)
Nocturnal species which occurs in inshore waters of the continental shelf (Ref. 75154).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 439 p. (Ref. 11441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 884 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00528 - 0.02384), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 110 [68, 239] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.854 [0.542, 1.288] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.5, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.171 [0.116, 0.257] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.6 [18.3, 55.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 76.3 [29.4, 193.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.53 [1.09, 2.09] mg/100g (wet weight);