Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 18 - 50 m (Ref. 3585). Tropical; 14°N - 5°S
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Congo (Ref. 3585, 57225), including the Cape Verde (Ref. 3585).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3585)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 6 - 10. Diagnosis: body short and globose; mouth large with many small, villiform teeth; skin rough, covered with bifurcate dermal spinules; pectoral-fin lobes attached to sides of body; illicium nearly twice as long as second dorsal-fin spine (Ref. 57225).
Inhabits coastal waters (Ref. 26999). Occurs in marine or brackish water (Ref. 97225). Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pietsch, T.W., 1981. Family Antennariidae. In W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada and FAO. vols. 1-7. pag. var. (Ref. 2720)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.9 - 26.4, mean 24.4 °C (based on 19 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.68 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).