Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic. Tropical; 11°N - 1°S, 64°W - 46°W (Ref. 189)
Central and South America: lower parts of rivers from Trinidad and eastern Venezuela south to Para, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12225); common length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 20 - 25. Snout moderate and pointed, tip well above center of eye; maxilla short, tip blunt, failing to reach articulation of lower jaw by about 1/3 eye diameter, not extending behind end of second supra-maxilla; sub-operculum with angular hind margin, not formed into a triangular projection; gill rakers fine and slender. Silver stripe along flank, up to 1.5 eye diameter at widest (Ref. 189). Lacks membrane connecting the gill covers across the isthmus, longer and narrower cheek, higher dorsal and longer pectoral. Deep body and numerous gill rakers (Ref. 37032).
Occurs in estuaries and rivers to collect food. At certain months of the year, mainly Feb.-Mar., this fish is very abundant and forms an important part of the fisheries (Ref. 12225).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00369 - 0.01130), b=3.13 (2.98 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).