Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 23°N - 25°S, 90°W - 32°W (Ref. 189)
Western Atlantic: in the Antilles, from Cuba and perhaps throughout; Guatemala south and east to Venezuela and Trinidad, south to just north of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37032); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 25 - 32. Snout short and pointed, tip at about eye center; maxilla moderate, tip pointed and reaching onto pre-operculum (but not beyond), extending beyond second supra-maxilla; sub-operculum with angular hind margin, but not formed into a triangular projection; lower gill rakers increasing in large fishes. Anal fin origin below front few dorsal fin rays. Silver stripe disappearing with age (Ref. 189).
Found inshore forming quite large schools and also in estuaries, mangroves and other lagoons, penetrating into almost freshwater (salinities of 4.9-32.25 ppt in Santa Cruz Canal, Pernambuco, Brazil). Feeds by filtering plankton. No data on spawning.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.4 - 28.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 172 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00404 - 0.00622), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 127 [64, 285] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.58, 2.01] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.6, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.405 [0.204, 0.884] g/100g ; Selenium = 53.2 [27.5, 113.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.3 [8.5, 97.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);