Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Subtropical; 2°S - 39°S, 60°W - 32°W (Ref. 189)
Southwest Atlantic: Ceará, Brazil southward to Mar de la Plata, Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122735); common length : 6.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189); max. published weight: 24.10 g (Ref. 122735)
soft rays: 16 - 19. Snout long, pointed, about 3/4 eye diameter; maxilla moderate, tip not sharply pointed, not or only just reaching to hind border of pre-operculum; gill cover canals of panamensis-type. Anal fin short, its origin below or behind midpoint of dorsal fin base. A broad silver stripe along flank, about 3/4 eye diameter.
A schooling species found in coastal waters, but also entering brackish water. More data needed (Ref. 189). Found in markets (Ref. 37032). Largely utilized as bait for commercial fishery, oil, flour, and also canned fish (Ref. 103984).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.8 - 27.2, mean 22.6 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00315 - 0.00915), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 0.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .