Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 640 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 35°S - 57°S, 78°W - 53°W (Ref. 114953)
Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 27540, Ref. 114953). Southwest Atlantic: off Argentina (Ref. 26282) and Uruguay, including Falkland Islands (Ref. 58839, Ref. 114953).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 69.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found on mid- and outer continental shelf and upper slope, occasionally caught deeper to 1000 m. Mainly feeds on benthic invertebrates and small bony fishes (Ref. 114953). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsule measures 86.4 mm long and 56.2 mm wide (Ref. 41249). Hatches from egg case at ca. 9 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.5 - 9, mean 7.3 °C (based on 65 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00144 - 0.00663), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .