Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Albuliformes
(Bonefishes) > Albulidae
(Bonefishes) > Albulinae
Etymology: Albula: Latin, albus = white (Ref. 45335). More on author: Fowler.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 5217), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Atlantic: Greater Antilles and Panama to Brazil; questionably recorded from Florida Keys in USA. Replaced by Albula pacifica in the eastern Pacific (Ref. 84142).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 8. Last rays of dorsal and anal fin prolonged; upper lobe of caudal fin slightly longer than lower lobe; dusky spot at pectoral base; head region naked; nasal pore margin black; black bands on snout (Ref. 13608). Brilliant silver below and dark above (Ref. 37032).
Mostly in estuaries, especially those of rivers along mountainous shores (Ref. 7251). Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawning occurs in open waters. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5007 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00559 - 0.03252), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 200 [117, 330] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.14 [0.76, 1.89] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [16.4, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.572 [0.298, 1.155] g/100g ; Selenium = 78.6 [38.4, 158.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.2 [6.5, 39.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.91, 1.79] mg/100g (wet weight);