Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Aetobatidae
(Pacific eagle rays)
Etymology: Aetobatus: Greek, aetos = eagle + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Eastern Pacific: from the Gulf of California to Ecuador, including Galapagos Is.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This large eagle ray is distinguished by the following characters: bluish black dorsal body with numerous white spots or ocelli, ventral surface mostly white; a moderately long fleshy rostral lobe; disc short and very broad; pectoral fins weakly falcate, joining head at level of eye and is separate from rostral lobe, the posterior margins moderately concave and free rear rips broadly rounded; rostral lobe moderately long and parabolic; large spiracles are dorsolateral, visible on dorsal view; mouth ventrally located, width narrower than preoral length; large nasal curtain, deeply notched centrally and with a curtain-like fringe; each jaw with plate-like teeth in a single row, with upper teeth transverse, lower teeth chevron-shaped; smooth disc without denticles or thorns; elongated tail, whip-like; small dorsal fin raked back, its apex broadly rounded, with free rear tip short; presence of 1 or more stings (Ref. 114953).
This inshore species in coastal bays and estuaries, to offshore occurs solitary or in large schools. It feeds mainly on bivalves, also shrimps, polychaetes and other fishes. Size usually less than 130 cm, size unknown at birth and when it matures (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
White, W.T. and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the pelagic eagle rays, genus Aetobatus. Zootaxa 4139 (3):435-438. (Ref. 109645)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= No PD50 data [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .