Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 100 - 1200 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water; 55°N -
Eastern Atlantic: Rockall Trough, rare north of Gulf of Cadiz, Spain (Ref. 4769); Canary Islands to Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 4463). Western Atlantic: in tropical waters. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Indian Ocean: in tropical waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124532); max. published weight: 2.70 g (Ref. 124532)
Mesopelagic species, showing marked stratification of size with depth, with the largest individuals deepest (Ref. 4869); also bathypelagic (Ref. 5951). Exhibits diel color change, darkening slightly at night (Ref. 4769). Feeds on zooplankton.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Badcock, J., 1984. Gonostomatidae. p. 284-301. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 1. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4769)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.7 - 16.7, mean 11.1 °C (based on 400 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00268 - 0.00815), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).