Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 19 - 130 m (Ref. 26938). Subtropical; 37°N - 20°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida, USA, northern Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean to Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 71.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275); max. published weight: 2.8 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occurs in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters (Ref. 7251). Inhabits mainly hard and sandy bottoms (Ref. 3275).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.1 - 27.5, mean 24.2 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00322 - 0.01632), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 60.4 [29.7, 143.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.999 [0.589, 1.824] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.268 [0.144, 0.478] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.5 [15.5, 73.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [3, 59] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.475 [0.306, 0.730] mg/100g (wet weight);