Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Ariidae
(Sea catfishes) > Ariinae
Etymology: Amphiarius: The first part of name from Greek 'amphi' meaning on both sides or double, referring to the occurrence of the included species both in fresh and marine waters; the second part is from the frequently used ariid generic name Arius.. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 8°N - 3°S, 59°W - 43°W
South America: Guyana to Maranhão, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108869); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265)
Coastal, found chiefly in turbid waters of estuaries and around river mouths. Reproduction appears to be between September to November. Egg diameter is 14-15 mm, numbering about 30-35 per female. Males practice mouth brooding (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh and salted; exported frozen (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978. Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27 - 28.5, mean 27.6 °C (based on 82 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00406 - 0.00937), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 181 [84, 362] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.974 [0.615, 1.617] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.4 [14.8, 18.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.333 [0.153, 0.685] g/100g ; Selenium = 76.3 [37.0, 166.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.7 [8.4, 58.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.49 [0.93, 2.65] mg/100g (wet weight);