Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 200 - 500 m (Ref. 4455). Deep-water
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola, including Cape Verde. Recorded from central Namibia (Ref. 27121).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4455)
Burrows in sand or mud on the continental shelf (Ref. 4455).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Leiby, M., 1990. Ophichthidae. p. 176-192. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4455)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9 - 15.1, mean 10.8 °C (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00044 - 0.00239), b=2.97 (2.77 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).