Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Pegusa: The old name of the Cnidus, the city in Asia minos where the Atheniasn defeated Spartans in a naval battle near 394 BC.
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 30 m (Ref. 2683). Tropical; 21°N - 1°N
Eastern Central Atlantic: Mauritania to Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 5304, 57416); not in the south of Cape Lopez and not in the north of Rio de Oro (Ref. 5304).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57416)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 57 - 64. Diagnosis: flat and asymmetric body; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals; preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth small, more or less arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and separated from caudal fin; dorsal fin originating almost at anterior end of snout; pectoral fins present; lateral line straight, anteriorly prolonged into supratemporal line describing an arch above eyes; body covered with ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).
Found on sand bottoms (Ref. 5304). Enters lagoons (Ref. 6805). Feeds on mollusks and other invertebrates (Ref. 5377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.4 - 28, mean 27.4 °C (based on 20 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00473 - 0.02021), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).