Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 150 m (Ref. 9563). Subtropical
Indo-West Pacific: most coasts of Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3132); common length : 22.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9774); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 3132)
soft rays: 51 - 60. Body brownish, 2 conspicuous ocelli above and below lateral line and 1 or 2 ocelli on posterior part of straight section of lateral line, a dark blotch at junction of straight and curved portions of lateral line. Upper profile of head distinctly notched in front of upper eye. A line connecting base of first dorsal-fin ray and posterior nostril on eyed side crosses maxilla. Origin of dorsal fin slightly before anterior margin of upper eye and just above or behind posterior nostril on blind side. Pectoral fin on ocular side with 11-12 soft rays (Ref 9774).
Occurs in estuaries and offshore over sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 9563). Feeds on various benthic animals (Ref. 9774). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9774) and is considered an excellent food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.2 - 28.7, mean 25 °C (based on 964 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00352 - 0.01634), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 96.9 [45.9, 222.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [1, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.6, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.235 [0.125, 0.434] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.5 [14.7, 60.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.58 [2.15, 27.85] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.75 [0.51, 1.09] mg/100g (wet weight);