Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 34291), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 34291). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059)
Africa: known from Lower Nile up to Lake Victoria basin (Ref. 1878), including Baro system in Ethiopia (Ref. 54860). Present in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga, Albert, Edward and George, the Victoria and Murchison Nile (Ref. 34290), and Middle Akagera system (Ref. 46152). Also known from Lake Turkana basin and Northern Ewaso Nyiro (Ref. 52331).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34290)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 17 - 22. Diagnosis: snout long, about equal to the post-ocular length of the head (Ref. 28714), produced into a stout trunk whose thickness and angle to the face are variable (Ref. 34290). Dorsal fin very long, more than twice the anal fin length, with less than 75 rays, its origin above or slightly in front of the insertion of the pelvic fins (Ref. 4903, 28714).
Solitary, nocturnal species (Ref. 28714). In Lake Victoria in both coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 4903). May spawn in the main lake, perhaps in deep water over rocks (Ref. 52083). In Lake Kyoga in open water rather than weedy areas (Ref. 55624). Bottom feeder; small fishes eat lithophilic insects; adults almost exclusively insectivorous; chironomids dominate in the diet (Ref. 12526). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gosse, J.-P., 1984. Mormyridae. p. 63-122. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3203)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00696 - 0.02076), b=2.88 (2.73 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,393).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100).