Teleostei (teleosts) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Notopteridae
(Featherbacks or knifefishes) > Notopterinae
Etymology: Chitala: Bangladesh local name.
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
Asia: Borneo, Sumatra and Java in Indonesia, Malaya, and Thailand (Ref. 7050). Found in the Mekong basin (Ref. 12693). Protected in Indonesia as Notopterus sp. (Ref. 12217).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Jaws increasing in length throughout life, extending far beyond posterior margin of eye in large specimens; small juveniles with slightly oblique bars on body and anal fin; larger juveniles and adults with plain body, overall silvery to bronze in life (Ref. 43281).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Inhabits mainstreams and forest streams (Ref. 58784). Feeds on fishes, probably has a crepuscular or nocturnal activity pattern (Ref. 12693). Other food of this species includes insects and small vertebrates (Ref. 58784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5166 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00231 - 0.00753), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.8 [20.0, 209.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.36 [0.48, 4.20] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.4, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.284 [0.113, 0.726] g/100g ; Selenium = 102 [35, 244] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.1 [10.2, 265.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.695 [0.362, 1.536] mg/100g (wet weight);