Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range ? - 30 m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 32°N - 5°N, 115°W - 76°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 9. Distinguished by the following characteristics: Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 18-20 rays: anal fin with 2 spines and 9 rays: pectoral fins with 17-19 rays; caudal fin rounded; smooth scales; lateral line scales 54-62; lateral line scale series 67-75; depth of body distinctly less than HL, depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in SL; caudal peduncle depth 11-12% SL; eye diameter slightly greater than snout length, 4.3-4.7 times HL; rounded preopercle, rear edge distinctly serrate with a large spine (usually hidden by skin) directed downward and forward at the angle; gill rakers 6-8 on upper limb, 14-16 on lower limb (Ref. 89707).
A demersal, rocky reef (Ref. 89707) and shallow-water species, cryptically colored and secretive. Sedentary during the day, hiding in crevices or lying among seaweed, and rely on their effective camouflage to escape detection (sometimes lying and partly covering itself with sand). Nocturnal predators feeding mainly on benthic crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming Fec > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 165 [65, 306] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.59, 2.00] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.8, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.239 [0.141, 0.407] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.5 [25.5, 86.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.5 [10.4, 87.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.91, 1.85] mg/100g (wet weight);