Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 9997). Tropical; 26°N - 26°S
Eastern Atlantic: Nigeria. Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Gulf of Aden, South Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6871), and Australia. Also reported from the Mediterranean (Ref. Often confused with sympatric Carcharhinus leucas and Glyphis gangeticus but the three are distinguishable.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 213.0, range 198 - 223 cm
Max length : 280 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
soft rays: 0. A massive shark with a thick-set head, a short, broad and blunt snout, small eyes and large, triangular, saw-edged upper teeth; 1st dorsal fin high and erect, at leas 3.2 times height of 2nd dorsal fin; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Grayish in color, white below; fins with dusky tips (Ref. 5578).
An inshore species of the continental and insular shelves, commonly inhabiting shallow waters close inshore, near the surf line and along beaches (Ref. 244). May also be found in shallow bays and estuaries, as well as off the open coast but not ascending rivers (Ref. 9997). Predominantly demersal but found throughout the water column (Ref. 6871). Feeds on pelagic and demersal bony fishes, sharks and rays, squid, shrimps, cuttlefish, octopi, lobsters, gastropods and mammalian carrion (Ref. 5578, 9997). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Potentially dangerous but not recorded in shark attacks to date (Ref. 9997). Utilized fresh and dried-salted for human consumption (Ref. 9997).
Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 3 to 13 in a litter (Ref. 9997). Size at birth about 43 to 53 cm TL (Ref. 9997); 60-70 cm TL (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 1396 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00219 - 0.01045), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .