Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Rhinomuraena: Greek, rhinos = nose + Latin, muraena = morey eel (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 67 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 32°N - 26°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia and French Polynesia; including Marianas and Marshalls.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 107.0, range 94 - 120 cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Vertebrae: 270 - 286. Has three fleshy tentacles on the tip of its lower jaw, a single fleshy pointed projection at the tip of its snout, and tubular anterior nostrils ending in gaudy, fanlike expansions.
Adults occur in lagoon and seaward reefs. They are secretive species normally hidden in sand or rubble, sometimes with only its head protruding. Feed on small fishes (Ref. 9710, 48635, 75154, 89972). Juveniles all black, males have yellow dorsal fin and females change to a nearly all yellow color, but usually with blue in the posterior (Ref. 48635). Only moray that undergoes abrupt changes in coloration and sex: it is a protandrous hermaphrodite, i.e., functioning males reverse sex to become females. Protandry is diagnosed based on colouration, but not confirmed (Ref. 103751).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Protandry is diagnosed based on colouration, but not confirmed (Ref. 103751).
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.6 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 552 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00050 (0.00024 - 0.00103), b=3.26 (3.10 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (78 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.8 [13.0, 42.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.387 [0.218, 0.654] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [17.4, 22.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.13 [0.06, 0.35] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.9 [26.7, 95.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 114 [32, 388] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.704 [0.485, 1.001] mg/100g (wet weight);