Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sillaginidae
Etymology: Sillago: From a locality in Australia . More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 0 - 36 m, usually ? - 36 m (Ref. 6205). Tropical; 0°S - 35°S, 111°E - 150°E (Ref. 6205)
Western Central Pacific: Indonesia, southern New Guinea and northern Australia. Frequently confused with Sillago maculata which occurs in eastern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - 13.9 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6205)
soft rays: 18 - 20;
Vertebrae: 34 - 36. Swim bladder with four anterolateral extensions that are more complex than S. aeolus, but much shorter than S. maculata. Body coloration is very similar to S. maculata and S. aeolus. Body with oblique bars which are not joined as in S. maculata. The upper blotches are small, the black spot at the base of the pectoral fin is indistinct. The lateral silvery stripe is noticeable but may be quite faded.
Most abundant on silty-sand or muddy substrates. Large adults feed near gutters and sandbars inside Shark Bay and move into deeper waters of marine embayments. Juveniles frequent seaweed banks and broken bottom and occur in large numbers near mangrove creeks. They enter coastal rivers in the Swan and Mandurah estuaries in western Australia. Oviparous (Ref. 205), and are multiple spawners with synchronous development (Ref. 36823). Juveniles and adults are commonly trawled with S. robusta and S. lutea (Ref. 6205). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9679).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Multiple spawners with synchronous development (Ref. 36823).
McKay, R.J., 1992. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 14. Sillaginid fishes of the world (family Sillaginidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the sillago, smelt or Indo-Pacific whiting species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(14):87p. (Ref. 6205)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.8 - 28.7, mean 27.7 °C (based on 550 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00361 - 0.02006), b=3.07 (2.86 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 0.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .