Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 70 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 33°N - 4°S, 115°W - 77°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru, including the Revillagigedo, Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, and Malpelo islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592)
soft rays: 9 - 11. Distinguished by the following characteristics: reddish or reddish grey body color with 2-3 bright blue or violet spots on dorsal part of body and another 2 on midlateral part of caudal peduncle; pectoral-fin axil with bright blue spot; dorsal fin base darker, fin margin reddish green; depth of body contained 2.9-3.4 times in SL; head length 3.2-4.0 times in SL; convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle with shallow notch, vertical edge and rear half of lower edge finely serrate; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Found typically in small aggregations well above the reef, but will retreat to the reef at the approach of danger. Feeds mainly on small planktonic animals picked individually from the water, made possible by their shortened snout which facilitates close-range binocular vision. Excellent source of bait (Ref. 9342).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.5 - 28.9, mean 25.9 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00519 - 0.02541), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.8 [26.8, 78.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.609 [0.338, 0.991] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.5, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.153 [0.102, 0.231] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [19.3, 56.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 160 [59, 493] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.06 [0.74, 1.50] mg/100g (wet weight);