Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pentanchidae
Etymology: Parmaturus: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield + Greek, oura = tail. More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range ? - 786 m (Ref. 244). Deep-water; 35°N - 32°N
Northwest Pacific: China and Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244)
Found on the continental slope (Ref. 244). Oviparous (Ref. 559). Liver has a high concentration of squalene (Ref. 559).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00148 - 0.00675), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 11.6 [1.8, 41.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.291 [0.072, 0.791] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.2 [13.3, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.211 [0.084, 0.486] g/100g ; Selenium = 14 [4, 43] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.7 [4.7, 63.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.337 [0.155, 0.726] mg/100g (wet weight);