Teleostei (teleosts) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Ophidiidae
(Cusk-eels) > Brotulinae
Etymology: Brotula: Latin, brotula, -ae = little, bud, shoot (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Hubbs.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 650 m (Ref. 34024), usually 40 - 75 m (Ref. 36413). Tropical; 25°N - 6°S
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 75.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 115 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 78 - 89;
Vertebrae: 55 - 56. Body completely covered with small, imbricate, cycloid scales; barbels present on snout (6) and chin (6); branchiostegal rays 8; median basibranchial tooth patch absent; developed gill rakers on first arch 4 or fewer; pelvic fin rays inserted at about level of preopercle, well behind eye (Ref. 34024).
Adults benthopelagic to 650 m depth, juveniles common on reefs (Ref. 34024). At depths of about 40-75 m, adults are found deep on mud and broken shell bottom (Ref. 36413). Smaller silvery specimens taken far out at sea in the epipelagic (Ref. 34024). Caught occasionally (Ref. 34024). Oviparous, with late post-flexion and transformation stage larvae found in midwater (Ref. 36413). Oval, pelagic eggs float in a gelatinous mass (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, with no specialized copulatory organ (Ref. 36413).
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16 - 25.2, mean 19.4 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00199 - 0.00725), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.77 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.38, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.57, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 56.5 [31.2, 137.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.759 [0.396, 1.366] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.2 [13.7, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.202 [0.105, 0.413] g/100g ; Selenium = 151 [68, 350] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [3.5, 39.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.728 [0.481, 1.126] mg/100g (wet weight);