Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 80 m (Ref. 9773). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea to French Polynesia, north to Japan. Also reported from Persian Gulf (Ref. 96002).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 48.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 250 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught often in demersal trawls, and occasionally by trammel net. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref. 58048).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gives birth to litters of up to 7 pups; born at 24-26 cm WD (Ref. 58048).
Sommer, C., W. Schneider and J.-M. Poutiers, 1996. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome. 376 p. (Ref. 30573)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2718 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00386 - 0.00986), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1-6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 18.6 [5.1, 96.5] mg/100g; Iron = 0.633 [0.154, 1.772] mg/100g; Protein = 22.5 [19.0, 25.4] %; Omega3 = 0.159 [0.044, 0.512] g/100g; Selenium = 54.2 [15.2, 177.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 9.18 [3.08, 26.74] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.584 [0.276, 1.078] mg/100g (wet weight);