Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Fiji (Ref. 6820).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6802); max. published weight: 18.95 g (Ref. 124712)
Inhabits brackish mangrove estuaries and lower reaches of freshwater streams, usually on mud bottoms (Ref. 44894). Usually found in lagoons and estuaries, particularly where there is vegetation (Ref. 6028, 79840). Occurs frequently in mangrove swamps (Ref. 2847, 79840). Occasionally ascends rivers (Ref. 6028). Feeds mainly on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6028, 79840). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hoese, D.F., 1986. Eleotridae. p. 807-811. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5493)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1196 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00448 - 0.01475), b=3.18 (3.02 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).