Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Müller & Henle.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 200 m (Ref. 30573), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 42°N - 21°N, 117°E - 143°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: Japan to Taiwan, reports from Philippines and India probably appear to be other species (Ref. 114953).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 637)
Found near shore on sandy-mud bottoms (Ref. 11230, 30573). Reported to occur offshore (Ref. 58784). Feeds on small benthic animals. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature at ca. 55 cm TL. Produces litters of 1-14 pups (Ref. 114953). The best edible fish in the family, served in raw slices or hard boiled with seasonings (Ref. 637). Dried fins used for shark-fin soup (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.4 - 27.1, mean 23.6 °C (based on 475 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00152 - 0.00600), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .