Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 300 m (Ref. 100719). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 3476).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3476)
soft rays: 11. Brownish with small dark spots on upper body; usually with 4-5 dark brown bands crosses back; spiny dorsal with broad black band near edge and small black spots below, other fins darkly spotted (Ref. 4315).
Occur from near shore to 100 m depth (Ref. 4315, 11230), on sand or mud bottoms. Larvae and juveniles rarely enter mangrove areas, most especially the lower reaches (Ref. 43081).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knapp, L.W., 1986. Platycephalidae. p. 482-486. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4315)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion