Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m. Subtropical; 40°N - 25°S
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (including the Mascarenes, Ref. 33390) to southern Japan, Taiwan, Mariana, Caroline and Solomon islands, Queensland and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 7251) to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Guinea to Gabon.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Inhabits both neritic and oceanic surface waters (Ref. 30573). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface (Ref. 30573). Feeds mostly on crustaceans and other planktonic organisms; often attracted to lights at night (Ref. 2797).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364. (Ref. 27313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.7 - 29.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 25528 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00292 - 0.01429), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 218 [80, 440] mg/100g; Iron = 1.79 [0.91, 4.06] mg/100g; Protein = 17.7 [15.6, 19.6] %; Omega3 = 0.307 [0.140, 0.848] g/100g; Selenium = 22 [10, 47] μg/100g; VitaminA = 15.5 [4.6, 60.0] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.902 [0.611, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);