Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 310 - 1900 m (Ref. 114953). Deep-water; 35°N - 4°S, 97°W - 35°W (Ref. 114953)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina (Ref. 114953), off Florida (Ref. 12965, 13608) including Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 114953) to northern coast of Colombia, and off Suriname (Ref. 13608 and Brazil (Ref. 53436)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 84.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Lack of thorns along the midbelt of the disc from the level of the axils of the pectoral fins to the vicinity of the spiracles. Tails widen rearward toward the dorsal fins. No interspace between the bases of the dorsal fins. Upper surface pale brown, darker along posterior margins of disc, pelvic fins and tail. Dorsal fins and caudal black. Lower surface margined with black rearward from the level of the mouth (Ref. 6902).
Found on upper continental slope (Ref. 114953). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Males reaches maturity at ca.63 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7 - 15, mean 10.1 °C (based on 115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00144 - 0.00663), b=3.22 (3.05 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .