Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 9 - 125 m (Ref. 9895). Tropical; 32°N - 5°S, 47°E - 134°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Sri Lanka and Indonesia, north to southern Japan. Reported occurrence of this species from Niue (Ref. 3804) should be verified.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3391)
soft rays: 85 - 98;
Vertebrae: 50 - 57. Eyed side uniform brown, with a dark patch on gill cover, blind side white. Body elongate, its depth 20 to 26% SL. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout obtusely pointed. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly to or beyond lower of eye, about midway between gill opening and tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays usually 10. Midlateral-line scales 56 to 70. Scales large, ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid (smooth) on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 7 to 9 (Ref 9895).
Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf down to 125 m. Enters estuaries and tidal rivers (Ref. 1479). Feeds predominantly on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed mostly fresh and frozen; also dried-salted (Ref. 9895).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.5 - 28.7, mean 27.7 °C (based on 550 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00280 - 0.00375), b=3.12 (3.08 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24-0.98; tm=2;).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 149 [70, 257] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.909 [0.427, 1.502] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [15.9, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.12 [0.05, 0.26] g/100g ; Selenium = 63.3 [32.5, 122.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.5 [7.8, 50.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.94, 1.82] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.