Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes
(Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae
(Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: heteros (Gr.), different; odontos (Gr.), tooth, referring to pointy teeth (for clutching prey) at front of jaws, different than rounded molar-like teeth (for grinding hard-shelled invertebrates) at the back. (See ETYFish); ramalheira: In honor of João Ramalheira, captain of the trawler from which holotype was collected, and “who has brought in much valuable scientific material” [presumably a noun in apposition, without the patronymic “i”]. (See ETYFish).
More on author: Smith.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - 305 m (Ref. 106604), usually 100 - ? m (Ref. 43278). Deep-water; 22°N - 26°S, 30°E - 60°E
Western Indian Ocean: off southern Mozambique and Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578), also off the eastern shore of the Arabian Peninsula.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); 83.0 cm TL (female)
Found on the outer continental shelf and uppermost slopes (Ref. 247, 43278). Benthic (Ref. 43278). Feeds on crabs (Ref. 5578, 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.9 - 21.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 15 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00169 - 0.00857), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100).