Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes
(Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae
(Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: heteros (Gr.), different; odontos (Gr.), tooth, referring to pointy teeth (for clutching prey) at front of jaws, different than rounded molar-like teeth (for grinding hard-shelled invertebrates) at the back. (See ETYFish); galeatus: Latin for helmeted, probably referring to high, enlarged supraorbital ridges or crest. (See ETYFish).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 93 m (Ref. 54545). Temperate; 27°S - 35°S, 150°E - 155°E
Western Pacific: eastern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 70 - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 122 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72467)
A moderately common benthic and epibenthic shark found on the continental shelf (Ref. 247, 43278). Occurs from close inshore to about 93 m depth (Ref. 247, 43278). Feeds primarily on sea urchins, but also on crustaceans, mollusks, and small fishes (Ref. 31369). Oviparous, egg cases spirally flanged and with long tendrils (Ref. 6871). Hatches at about 22 cm (Ref. 6871).
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.2 - 24, mean 21.8 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00169 - 0.00857), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tm=11.8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 2.87 [0.37, 11.82] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.113 [0.027, 0.319] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.2, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.198 [0.078, 0.467] g/100g ; Selenium = 7.8 [2.2, 24.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.2 [8.1, 135.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.439 [0.206, 0.907] mg/100g (wet weight);