Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin for skate, which angel sharks superficially resemble, presumably tautonymous with Squalus squatina Linnaeus 1758 (no species mentioned). (See ETYFish); californica: -ica (L.), belonging to: California (USA), referring to type locality in San Francisco Bay. (See ETYFish).
More on author: Ayres.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 205 m (Ref. 9253), usually 3 - 46 m (Ref. 54903). Subtropical; 60°N - 22°N, 139°W - 104°W (Ref. 54903)
Eastern Pacific: southeastern Alaska to Gulf of California; Costa Rica to southern Chile.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 97.0, range 86 - 108 cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); max. reported age: 35 years (Ref. 6147)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on the continental shelf and littoral areas (Ref. 247).A sluggish and inactive species that buries itself in sand or mud (Ref. 247). Also found around rocks, heads of submarine canyons, and sometimes near kelp forests (Ref. 247). Feeds on bottom and epibenthic fishes, including croakers, California halibut, and squid (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Can whip up its head and snap very quickly when touched, provoked, harassed, or speared, and can inflict painful lacerations (Ref. 247).
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12.5 - 25.9, mean 21 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00280 - 0.01965), b=3.04 (2.80 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.15-0.16; tm=8-13; tmax=35; Fec=6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 17.5 [3.6, 86.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.795 [0.206, 2.275] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [17.8, 21.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.363 [0.162, 0.801] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.5 [7.5, 76.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.99 [3.53, 27.74] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.421 [0.203, 0.760] mg/100g (wet weight);