Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 500 m (Ref. 247). Subtropical; 43°N - 19°S, 18°W - 30°E
Eastern Atlantic: western Mediterranean, Morocco, Senegal, Guinea to Nigeria, Gabon to Angola.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 124 - ? cm
Max length : 188 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Found mainly on muddy bottom (Ref. 26999). Feeds on small sharks and jacks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized dried salted and fresh for human consumption; liver oil and hide also utilized (Ref. 247).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 17.2, mean 15.2 °C (based on 65 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00273 - 0.01920), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21 [3, 72] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.879 [0.239, 2.300] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.3, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.361 [0.176, 0.731] g/100g ; Selenium = 33 [9, 83] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.5 [3.9, 28.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.417 [0.202, 0.857] mg/100g (wet weight);