Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2141 m (Ref. 11892). Temperate; 34°S - 61°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: Tasmania. Pacific and Atlantic: New Zealand, Chile, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. Southern Ocean: South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, and the Kerguelen Islands. Juveniles found both north and south of the Antarctic Convergence and are probably circumpolar between 50°-60°S.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 81.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4410)
A rare (Ref. 5205) oceanic species.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Haedrich, R.L., 1986. Stromateidae. p. 842-846. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4410)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 1.8 - 8.8, mean 5.2 °C (based on 508 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00540 - 0.03372), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 20.6 [9.8, 41.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.383 [0.196, 0.783] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.2, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.592 [0.311, 1.130] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.2 [10.5, 49.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.5 [2.3, 46.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.398 [0.259, 0.619] mg/100g (wet weight);