Teleostei (teleosts) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 350 m (Ref. 7097), usually 1 - 200 m (Ref. 55173). Subtropical
Atlantic Ocean, restricted to continental shelf areas. Mediterranean excluded.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 66.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 124 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 32.0 kg (Ref. 27584)
soft rays: 15 - 18. Diagnosis: Scutes on lateral line 23 (Ref. 57392) to 42 (Ref. 13442). No scales on chest (Ref. 13442), except a small mid-ventral patch in front of pelvic fins (Ref. 13442, 57392). Upper profile of head steep (Ref. 13442). Maxilla ending approximately below (Ref. 13442, 57392) or beyond (Ref. 57392) posterior edge of eye (in adult). Front of soft dorsal and anal fins elevated; olivaceous to bluish green dorsally, silvery to brassy on the sides; prominent black spot posteriorly on gill cover at level of eye, another at upper axil of pectoral fins, and often a third on lower pectoral rays; caudal yellowish (Ref. 13442).
Generally in neritic waters over the continental shelf (Ref. 5217), from the coastline, where it is common on shallow flats, to offshore waters (Ref. 57392). Adults ascend rivers (Ref. 26938). Juveniles abundant in brackish estuaries with muddy bottoms, near sandy beaches and on seagrass beds (Ref. 5217), entering lagoons and lower courses of rivers (Ref. 57392). They form fast-moving schools, although larger fish may be solitary. They feed on smaller fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates (Ref. 5521). Often grunts or croaks are heard when caught. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).
Smith-Vaniz, W.F. and K.E. Carpenter, 2007. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa. Fish. Bull. 105(2):207-233. (Ref. 58464)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.5 - 27.9, mean 24.8 °C (based on 2020 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01424 - 0.02121), b=2.94 (2.91 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm 3-4).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (62 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 10.9 [4.1, 19.9] mg/100g; Iron = 0.33 [0.17, 0.68] mg/100g; Protein = 20.9 [18.7, 23.4] %; Omega3 = 0.218 [0.121, 0.391] g/100g; Selenium = 33.8 [14.2, 84.4] μg/100g; VitaminA = 16 [5, 56] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.357 [0.217, 0.574] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.